Telling the whole story: Why completeness is vital in journalism

The importance of story completeness cannot be overstated in the field of journalism. It necessitates the creation of a comprehensive narrative that illuminates the complete context and significance of a given event. In the haste to publish news, completeness is frequently disregarded, but it is an essential component of responsible journalism. It is akin to piecing together a complex puzzle in which every fragment plays a critical role in revealing the larger picture.

Why is story completeness paramount? Consider it the foundation of responsible journalism. It serves several crucial functions:

  • Conceptual completeness: A complete story goes beyond reporting and explores the underlying concepts, theories, and historical context. Events cannot be understood in isolation. They must be contextualised within their historical, social, and political backdrop to comprehend their significance and potential impact.

  • Gathering all pieces: Journalists should collect relevant information from a variety of sources, including official statements, expert opinions, and firsthand accounts. Doing so ensures a comprehensive understanding of the topic, reduces bias, and minimises blind spots.

  • Crystal clarity: To ensure understanding, explain complex concepts clearly and logically, avoiding jargon. Bridge the gap between technical details and your audience, making knowledge accessible to all.

  • Coherent narrative: Journalists don’t just present facts, they create a narrative that flows logically and connects key points for better reader engagement and comprehension.

  • No room for ambiguity: Complete stories need to address ambiguities, clarify uncertainties, and tie up loose ends to avoid confusion and ensure readers have a satisfying conclusion. Unclear information and open questions can undermine a story’s effectiveness, leaving readers with a sense of uncertainty.

  • Veracity above all: Journalism thrives on accuracy. It must check facts, verify information from multiple sources, and avoid speculation or unfounded claims in order to build trust with the audience and protect the integrity of news reporting.

The guide below outlines key steps for achieving story completeness:

Pre-reporting: laying the foundation

  • Begin by clearly defining the story’s central thesis. What critical question are you aiming to answer? This anchors your reporting and ensures all elements contribute to a cohesive narrative.
  • Thoroughly research and identify key stakeholders with diverse perspectives. Avoid simplistic narratives by incorporating all relevant voices and motivations.
  • Consider your audience’s level of understanding. Explain technical terms, historical context, and unfamiliar concepts with clarity and precision. Assume no prior knowledge.

Build a sturdy framework

  • Relying on a single source is insufficient. Double-check all details – names, dates, numbers, statistics – against primary sources and diverse perspectives. Cross-reference information and verify claims with independent evidence.
  • Recognise your own preconceptions and potential blind spots. Analyse how they might influence your reporting. Strive for objective and impartial presentation of facts.
  • Don’t accept official statements or press releases without scrutiny. Challenge narratives, dig deeper, and uncover the complete picture, regardless of convenience.

Crafting the narrative

  • Present complex information in digestible chunks using clear and concise language. Explain concepts and connections thoroughly, empowering your audience to understand the narrative.
  • Signpost transitions and make logical connections between key points, guiding your audience smoothly through the journey.
  • Ensure your narrative leads to a satisfying conclusion that addresses the central thesis. Avoid dangling unanswered questions or leaving the audience with unresolved queries.
  • Proactively address implicit questions your audience might have within the narrative. Leave no room for confusion or lingering doubts.

Post-reporting analysis

  • Re-read your story with a critical eye. Does it offer a complete picture? Are any glaring omissions or unanswered questions present? Take the time to revise and tighten the narrative.
  • Embrace constructive criticism from peers and editors. Their fresh perspectives can identify areas for improvement and further polish your story.
  • Learn from every experience. Reflect on your reporting process, identify areas for growth, and constantly strive to deliver stories that are deeper, richer, and more comprehensive.
ACME Mwalimu

The African Centre for Media Excellence's training unit, known as ACME Mwalimu, scours news platforms and online resources to curate the best training tips and resources for journalists and media organisations, empowering them to become impactful contributors to public debate and development. If you have a training tip or question, you can reach out to ACME Mwalimu at training[at]

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